Palomar College 
Statistics for the Behavioral Sciences 
ONLINE 
Roger N. Morrissette, PhD


PSYC 205 and SOC 205

COMPUTER ASSIGNMENTS
Exercise 1: Descriptive Statistics
Objectives:
By the end of this laboratory you should be able to perform the following activities using Microsoft Excel:
Enter Data into an Excel Spreasheet
Use Excel Formulas to Calculate Descriptive Statistics
Make a Graph from Continuous Data
Make a Graph from Categorical Data
Enter Data into SPSS
Use SPSS to Calculate Descriptive Statistics
Microsoft Excel is an easy software to learn and is ideal for doing simple descriptive statistics (e.g., means and standard deviations) and for making graphs of your data. I should say to start that there are many ways to use Excel. I will be showing you one of the simplest ways to enter data, do calculations, and make graphs. If you are already well versed in using Excel or know of alternative ways of attaining your end goal, you are certainly free to use them. I will first go over three basic procedures to using Excel for data analysis. After all questions have been answered I will give you an exercise that you will need to complete during class and submit by the next laboratory meeting. You may work in groups of two on this exercise.
Exercise 1A: Making a Table and Calculating Descriptive Statistics using Excel
Entering Data into an Excel Spreadsheet
(Video Lesson CA1a) (YouTube version)
To start click on the little green X icon for the Microsoft Excel software.
The page should open up to a grid. Assume the tables below represent that grid.
You are now ready to go.
Below is the experimental sample we will be using for this exercise.
Let's say you are conducting a survey on Binge Drinking. You are particularly interested in the different perceptions of binge drinking across campus. Your hypothesis states that members of fraternities will assume that Binge Drinking involves consuming more drinks in a single sitting than nonmembers of a fraternity. You survey 20 male students on campus. Ten of them are fraternity members and the other 10 are not. Your survey asks only two questions:
1. For a Male about 180lbs, how many drinks is considered to be "Binge Drinking"? _________
2. Is Binge Drinking a problem on this campus? Yes ______ or No _________
When you are done collecting your data, it is time to enter it into an Excel spreadsheet.
First, each survey should be numbered at the top. This is your participant number. You need this to keep track of your participants in case there is an error in data entry somewhere along the line.
NOTE: you will not actually be collecting any data. This is an example of something you might do. Please use the data given, as if it is the data you collected for this experiment.
Now let's start entering this data:
In one of the cells in the Excel spreadsheet, type in the word "Participant" and number the 20 cells below that cell 1 through 20 respectively. You can change the characteristics of any cell by highlighting it and then clicking on something on the edit bar. I personally like to have all of my data and labels in 8 point font and to be centered. I also like my data labels to be in bold so they stand out. You can do whatever you wish. The table below shows the start of the spreadsheet:
Participant 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20
So your first "column" heading was Participants, your next two columns should be for the designation of whether the participant was a fraternity member or not. The fourth column could be for their answer for the number of drinks question, and the fifth and sixth column can be for whether they answered "yes" or "no" to the second question. This is shown in the table below:
Participant Frat NoFrat # Drinks Yes No 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20
Now it is time to enter our data into the spreadsheet. This is best done with two people. One reading the results of the survey and one entering the data into the spreadsheet. It will make if very easy to calculate your data if you use "1" for an appropriate column response. This is called "coding" the data. This should make more sense when you look at the "coded" data below. For our 20 surveys the data looks like this:
Participant Frat NoFrat # Drinks Yes No 1 1 0 8 0 1 2 0 1 3 1 0 3 1 0 10 0 1 4 0 1 7 1 0 5 1 0 6 0 1 6 0 1 5 1 0 7 1 0 6 1 0 8 1 0 8 1 0 9 0 1 6 1 0 10 0 1 4 0 1 11 0 1 4 1 0 12 0 1 6 0 1 13 0 1 5 1 0 14 1 0 5 1 0 15 1 0 12 0 1 16 0 1 3 1 0 17 0 1 4 1 0 18 1 0 9 0 1 19 1 0 8 0 1 20 1 0 6 1 0
Notice that for participant #1, they were a fraternity member, thought that 8 drinks is considered binge drinking and chose "No" for question two. Now that your data is all entered, the next section will show you how to use Excel formulas to do some simple calculations and descriptive statistics.
Using Excel Formulas to Calculate Descriptive Statisitics
(Video Lesson CA1b) (YouTube version)
Since our data is part of an experiment that is comparing the responses of fraternity members and nonmembers, the first thing we should do is separate our two categories. You can do this with the "Data Sort" feature of Excel. The first thing you need to do is to highlight ALL of the data as is shown below:
Participant Frat NoFrat # Drinks Yes No 1 1 0 8 0 1 2 0 1 3 1 0 3 1 0 10 0 1 4 0 1 7 1 0 5 1 0 6 0 1 6 0 1 5 1 0 7 1 0 6 1 0 8 1 0 8 1 0 9 0 1 6 1 0 10 0 1 4 0 1 11 0 1 4 1 0 12 0 1 6 0 1 13 0 1 5 1 0 14 1 0 5 1 0 15 1 0 12 0 1 16 0 1 3 1 0 17 0 1 4 1 0 18 1 0 9 0 1 19 1 0 8 0 1 20 1 0 6 1 0
Then at the top of the excel document, find and select "Data", then select "Sort". On the left side you should see "Sort by" with a down arrow next to it. Click on the down arrow and select "Frat" (the title of the second column) and then "OK". Your spreadsheet should look like this:
Participant Frat NoFrat # Drinks Yes No 2 0 1 3 1 0 4 0 1 7 1 0 6 0 1 5 1 0 9 0 1 6 1 0 10 0 1 4 0 1 11 0 1 4 1 0 12 0 1 6 0 1 13 0 1 5 1 0 16 0 1 3 1 0 17 0 1 4 1 0 1 1 0 8 0 1 3 1 0 10 0 1 5 1 0 6 0 1 7 1 0 6 1 0 8 1 0 8 1 0 14 1 0 5 1 0 15 1 0 12 0 1 18 1 0 9 0 1 19 1 0 8 0 1 20 1 0 6 1 0
Notice how the frat members are now separate from the nonfrat members. Now we can simply insert a few rows between our two groups. The easiest way to do this is to go to the row number cell that has participant #1 in it (the dividing line between our two groups) and click on it. This will highlight the entire row all across the spreadsheet. Then at the top of the excel document find and select "Home" and then select "Insert". You will see that it inserts a blank row between your two groups of data. Repeat this 3 more times to give yourself a total of 4 rows separation between the two groups of data. The new spreadsheet should look like the one below:
Participant Frat NoFrat # Drinks Yes No 2 0 1 3 1 0 4 0 1 7 1 0 6 0 1 5 1 0 9 0 1 6 1 0 10 0 1 4 0 1 11 0 1 4 1 0 12 0 1 6 0 1 13 0 1 5 1 0 16 0 1 3 1 0 17 0 1 4 1 0 1 1 0 8 0 1 3 1 0 10 0 1 5 1 0 6 0 1 7 1 0 6 1 0 8 1 0 8 1 0 14 1 0 5 1 0 15 1 0 12 0 1 18 1 0 9 0 1 19 1 0 8 0 1 20 1 0 6 1 0
Now we can do our calculations. First let's calculate the means of column four for each group. Go to the cell below the last number in column four for the "NoFrat" group and highlight it by clicking on it. Then type the following: =average( then drag and highlight all the cells you want to include in your average (they will appear after the open parentheses mark), and then add the closed parentheses mark and hit "Enter".
My formula was "=average(F5F14)" for the top group and "=average(F19F28)" for the bottom. Your formula may differ based on where you placed your data on the grid.
The mean of the column appears in the originally highlighted cell. The table below shows the means for both groups:
Participant Frat NoFrat # Drinks Yes No 2 0 1 3 1 0 4 0 1 7 1 0 6 0 1 5 1 0 9 0 1 6 1 0 10 0 1 4 0 1 11 0 1 4 1 0 12 0 1 6 0 1 13 0 1 5 1 0 16 0 1 3 1 0 17 0 1 4 1 0 Mean 4.7 1 1 0 8 0 1 3 1 0 10 0 1 5 1 0 6 0 1 7 1 0 6 1 0 8 1 0 8 1 0 14 1 0 5 1 0 15 1 0 12 0 1 18 1 0 9 0 1 19 1 0 8 0 1 20 1 0 6 1 0 Mean 7.8
Notice that I have added the word "Mean" to both groups of data and made my means bold and red. Now let's calculate the percentage of people who answered "yes" or "no" for both data sets. We will need to know the sum of the "yes" and "no" columns and the total count of all the participants in each group. We use the same type of formula as in calculating the mean but instead of using the word "average" we use the words "sum" and "count" in its place. So we want the sums of columns 5 and 6 and the count of column 1 for both groups. Do it the same way as above but just change the formula words and highlighted cells. The table below shows my sum and count values:
Participant Frat NoFrat # Drinks Yes No 2 0 1 3 1 0 4 0 1 7 1 0 6 0 1 5 1 0 9 0 1 6 1 0 10 0 1 4 0 1 11 0 1 4 1 0 12 0 1 6 0 1 13 0 1 5 1 0 16 0 1 3 1 0 17 0 1 4 1 0 Count 10 Mean 4.7 Sum 8 2 1 1 0 8 0 1 3 1 0 10 0 1 5 1 0 6 0 1 7 1 0 6 1 0 8 1 0 8 1 0 14 1 0 5 1 0 15 1 0 12 0 1 18 1 0 9 0 1 19 1 0 8 0 1 20 1 0 6 1 0 Count 10 Mean 7.8 Sum 4 6
Some of you may be saying "why don't we just count them by hand". That could be done for this small group of data, but remember you will have around 200 participants. It is best to learn the formulas now on this small group of data. Now that we have the count totals and the sums, we can calculate the percentages of "yes" and "no" responses for each group. To calculate the percentage we simply take the sum of the column and divide by that by the count of the column and then multiply that product by 100. I usually make a percentage calculation cell using the Excel formula. The table with the percentages is shown below:
Participant Frat NoFrat # Drinks Yes No 2 0 1 3 1 0 4 0 1 7 1 0 6 0 1 5 1 0 9 0 1 6 1 0 10 0 1 4 0 1 11 0 1 4 1 0 12 0 1 6 0 1 13 0 1 5 1 0 16 0 1 3 1 0 17 0 1 4 1 0 Count 10 Mean 4.7 Sum 8 2 % 80 20 1 1 0 8 0 1 3 1 0 10 0 1 5 1 0 6 0 1 7 1 0 6 1 0 8 1 0 8 1 0 14 1 0 5 1 0 15 1 0 12 0 1 18 1 0 9 0 1 19 1 0 8 0 1 20 1 0 6 1 0 Count 10 Mean 7.8 Sum 4 6 % 40 60
My formula for the percentage of "yes" answers by the "Frat" group is: =(G16/C15)*100
The Percentage "No" formula is: =(H16/C15)*100 Once you have the formulas for the top group, you can just copy and past the formulas for the bottom group. Always check your answers the first few times that you make formulas. Now that we have all of our data calculated we are ready to make a graph of our data.
****Cut and Paste this final spreadsheet into an MSWord or pdf document as part of Computer Exercise #1 to be submitted*****
Exercise 1B: Making a Graph of your Continuous Data
Make a Graph of Continuous Data
(Video Lesson CA1c) (YouTube version)
I have found that the easiest way to make a graph in excel is to NOT try to do it from the data table that you used to calculate your sums, means, and percentages. The best way to start a graph is to make a summary data table. For the first graph we will use our continuous data. This graph should show the difference in means for "# of drinks" assumed to be binge drinking for the "Frat" group and the "NoFrat" group. Let's start by making a summary table for the "# of drinks" data. First, enter the levels of your independent variable in one column (e. g., "Frat" and "NoFrat"), then enter the data values of your dependent variable in the bordering column (our calculated values). Good luck.
Frat 7.8 NoFrat 4.7
Next, highlight all the cells that contain any information for the graph.
Frat 7.8 NoFrat 4.7
Then at the top of the Excel document, find and select "Insert". Click on the "Column" icon on the top tool bar (it looks like a little bar graph). Select your chart type. A basic chart should appear on your document. Now, if you look at the top of the Excel document again, find and select "Layout". Click on "Axis Titles". To label your horizontal axis, select "Primary Horizontal Axis Title" and click on "Title Below Axis". To label your vertical axis, select "Primary Vertical Axis Title" and click on "Rotated Title". After labeling your horizontal and vertical axis, click on "Axes", select "Primary Vertical Axis" and pick "More Primary Vertical Axis Options...". In the "Axis Options" you will select "Fixed" for the "Major Unit". Type a 2 in the blank next to Major Unit and hit Close. APA format does not use graph titles. It should look something like this:
If you highlight the graph you can enlarge it or shrink it or move it where ever you like on the spreadsheet.
You can remove the "Series 1" box by clicking on it and hitting the delete key.
You can modify all aspects of the graph by double clicking on the specify region. The only way to get good at this is to play around with editing. Good luck making your graphs!
****Cut and Paste this final graph into an MSWord or pdf document as part of Computer Exercise #1 to be submitted*****
Exercise 1C: Making a Graph of Categorical Data
Make a Graph of Categorical Data
(Video Lesson CA1d) (YouTube version)
This second graph should show the percentages of those who answered "yes" to the question as to whether binge drinking is a problem on this campus for each of the groups. There is no need to graph the "no" response because it will just be the inverse of the "yes" and not give us any new information. Although you could plot frequency on your y axis, it is most always best to plot percentages  please do this. Also, whenever you plot percentages, make sure that the y axis goes from "0" to "100". Use the same methods used to graph your continuous data (Exercise 1B) for your categorical data.
****Cut and Paste this final graph into an MSWord or pdf document as part of Computer Exercise #1 to be submitted*****
Exercise 1D: Making a Table and Calculating Descriptive Statistics using SPSS
Enter Data Using SPSS
(Video Lesson CA1e) (YouTube version)
This exercise will teach you how to begin to use the very powerful statistical software, SPSS. You will be using this software to analyze the data that you collect this semester. One of the trickiest parts of using SPSS is the very first step: Entering Data. Data entry in SPSS is considerably different than data entry in Excel so please pay very close attention to the steps below. To show you the difference between these two pieces of software we will be using the same data for this exercise as we used in Exercise 01: Using Excel. The data below is the same that we collected for the "Fraternity/Binge Drinking" study:
Participant  Frat  NoFrat  # Drinks  Yes  No  
1  1  0  8  0  1  
2  0  1  3  1  0  
3  1  0  10  0  1  
4  0  1  7  1  0  
5  1  0  6  0  1  
6  0  1  5  1  0  
7  1  0  6  1  0  
8  1  0  8  1  0  
9  0  1  6  1  0  
10  0  1  4  0  1  
11  0  1  4  1  0  
12  0  1  6  0  1  
13  0  1  5  1  0  
14  1  0  5  1  0  
15  1  0  12  0  1  
16  0  1  3  1  0  
17  0  1  4  1  0  
18  1  0  9  0  1  
19  1  0  8  0  1  
20  1  0  6  1  0  

This should get you to a blank data window like the one below:
Notice that you are in "Data View" (from the tabs at the bottom).
To begin entering our data we must first identify our Variables.
To do this we must use the lower tabs and select "Variable View".
A blank "Variable View" window is shown below:
Now that we are in "Variable View" we can enter the variables that are important to our study.
For our "Fraternity/Binge Drinking" study, our variables are:
1. Participant or "ID" number
2. Fraternity member or NonFraternity member (our independent variable)
3. The answer to question 1: For a Male about 180lbs, how many drinks is considered to be "Binge Drinking"? _________ (our continuous dependent variable)
4. The answer to question 2: Is Binge Drinking a problem on this campus? Yes ______ or No _________ (our categorical dependent variable)
Note that we did not measure any other variables like: "age", "ethnicity", "GPA", if we had we would be adding them to the data sheet.
Now we need to give each variable a name. How about...
1. ID
2. Frat
3. Drinks
4. Problem
Each variable name must:
begin with a letter
not contain any spaces
be 8 characters or fewer in length
In "Variable View", each "row" is a variable and each "column" is a characteristic of that variable.
Now click on the first empty cell under the "Name" column and enter our first variable name, "ID". Continue for the next 3 variables. SPSS will assign default variable characteristics to each variable.
The "Type" column describes the type of data:
numerical  interval/ratio number data values
string  categorical, nominal/ordinal data values
The "Width" column can be used to change the 8 character default setting for your variable names.
The "Decimal" column assigns the number of decimals you want for each variable.
The "Label" column is the place to give a more detailed description of the variable or its values.
The "Value" column is where you describe the variable codes and labels.
value labels  are used to describe the code for a categorical variable
e.g., "yes" = 1; "no" = 0
e.g., "female" = 1; "male" = 0
e.g., "Mon/Wed/Fri" = 1; "Tues/Thur" = 2
click in the cell of choice under the "Values" column.
For our data, we have two variables that we need to add values to: The IV: "Frat/NoFrat" variable needs the "0" and "1" data points as "NoFrat" and "Frat" respectively.
The second variable we need to label is the Categorical DV: "Problem". We need to code the "0" and "1" data points as "No" and "Yes" respectively.
then click the small grey box to get the "Value Label" dialog box.
enter a value label and then "Add" after each entry.
when you are done click "OK".
Define all the categorical or "coded" variables for our data.
Make sure that you routinely save all of your work.
Now you are ready to enter the data for each of your participants.
Go back into "Data View" to enter the data
When you are done entering data, double check your entries, and save your work.
Using SPSS to Calculate Descriptive Statistics
(Video Lesson CA1f) (YouTube version)
Now you are ready to calculate some descriptive statistics of your data base.
From "Data View" click "Analyze" in the menu bar.
Then click "Descriptive Statistics" and then "Descriptives".
This will bring up the "Descriptives" dialog box.
with all of the variables on the left side of the box.
To choose a variable for analysis, simply click on it and click on the arrow in the middle of the box.
This will move it to the "Variables" box.
In this section of SPSS descriptive statistics are means and standard deviations.
These can only be used on continuous data.
So, you should only do this analysis on the continuous DV.
Finally click "OK" to compute the descriptive statistics any and all continuous data.
Calculate the descriptive statistics for your data.
SPSS will generate an "Output Window" containing the analysis of your data.
You should end up getting an output looking similar to the one above.
Read it carefully and try to figure out what it is saying?
Is this the data we were looking for?
If it is, Open up a Microsoft Word file and cut and paste this table into the document for safe keeping and for printing out.
****Cut and Paste this table into an MSWord or pdf document as part of Computer Exercise #1 to be submitted*****
The descriptives we calculated above are for all the data combined.
We need to compare the mean values between the two levels of our Independent Variable (ie., Frat, NoFrat)
To find this descriptive data we must do the descriptive statistic analysis for each of our Frat Membership groups individually.
We can do this by going to "Analyze", then "Compare Means", and then "Means" as is shown below:
You will then get a prompted page like the one below:
It will ask you for the "Dependent List" and the "Independent List".
Drag the dependent variable (continuous only) into the "Dependent List" and the independent variable into the "Independent List" list and hit "OK".
Compare your output with the one generated using Excel.
Cut and paste this table into your Word document.
****Cut and Paste this table into an MSWord or pdf document as part of Computer Exercise #1 to be submitted*****
Now let's calculate the descriptive statistics for the categorical dependent variable
For this we use the "Analyze", "Descriptive Statistics", and then "Crosstabs" function to compare the "yes" percentages of the "Frat" and "NoFrat" groups.
Place your IV into the "Rows" space and the Categorical DV into the "Columns" space.
Then click the "Cells" option and check off the Percentage "Rows" option.
Click "OK" and you should get the same percentage figures for the categorical DV as you got with the Excel exercise.
Double check that they match the values you got using Excel.
Add this final table to your Word document and print this sheet out to hand in with your Excel exercise.
****Cut and Paste this table into an MSWord or pdf document as part of Computer Exercise #1 to be submitted*****