Careers in Oceanography
Many people associate careers in oceanography as consisting of swimming with marine animals at a marine life park or snorkeling in crystal-clear tropical waters studying coral reefs. In reality, these kinds of jobs are extremely rare and there is intense competition for the few jobs that do exist. Most oceanographers work in fields that use science to solve a particular problem in the ocean. Some examples include:
Preparing yourself for a career in oceanography is probably one of the most interesting and rewarding (yet difficult) paths to travel. The study of oceanography is typically divided into different academic disciplines (or sub-fields) of study. The four main disciplines of oceanography are:
Other disciplines include ocean engineering, marine archaeology, and marine policy. Since the study of oceanography often examines in detail all the different disciplines of oceanography, it is often described as being an interdisciplinary science, or one covering all the disciplines of science as they apply to the oceans. Thus, some of the most exciting work and best employment opportunities combine two or more of these disciplines.
Individuals in oceanography and marine-related fields need a good background in at least one area of basic science (for example, geology, physics, chemistry, or biology) or engineering. In almost all cases, mathematics is required as well. Marine archaeology requires a background in archaeology or anthropology; marine policy studies require a background in at least one of the social sciences (such as law, economics, or political science).
The ability to speak and write clearlyas well as critical thinking skillsare prerequisites for any career. Fluency in computerspreferably PC systems, not Macintoshis rapidly becoming a necessity. Because many job opportunities in oceanography require trips on research vessels, any shipboard experience is also desirable. Mechanical ability (the ability to fix equipment while on board a vessel without having to return to port) is a plus. Depending on the type of work that is required, other traits that may be desirable include: the ability to speak one or more foreign languages; certification as a scuba diver; the ability to work for long periods of time in cramped conditions; physical stamina; physical strength; and, of course, a high tolerance to motion sickness.
Since oceanography is such a new science (with much room left for new discoveries) most people enter the field with an advanced degree (masters or doctorate). One exception to this is to work as a marine technician, which usually requires a bachelors degree or applicable experience. It does take a large commitment to achieve an advanced degree, but, in the end, the journey itself is what makes all the hard work worthwhile.
Many job opportunities for oceanographers exist with scientific research institutions (universities) and various government agencies. Private companies who are engaged in searching for economic sea floor deposits, investigating areas for sea farming, and evaluating natural energy production from waves, currents, and tides also hire oceanographers. The job duties of oceanographers vary from place to place, but can be generally described as follows:
|Geological oceanographers and geophysicists explore the ocean floor and map submarine geologic structures. Studies of the physical and chemical properties of rocks and sediments give us valuable information about Earths history. The results of their work help us understand the processes that created the ocean basins and the interactions between the ocean and the sea floor.|
|Physical oceanographers investigate such ocean properties as temperature, density, wave motions, tides, and currents. They study the ocean-atmosphere relationship that influences weather and climate, the transmission of light and sound through water, and the oceans interactions with its boundaries at the sea floor and the coast.|
|Chemical oceanographers and marine geochemists investigate the chemical composition of seawater and its interaction with the atmosphere and the sea floor. Their work may include analysis of seawater components, desalination of seawater, and studying the effects of pollutants. They also examine chemical processes operating within the marine environment and work with biological oceanographers on studies of living systems. Their study of trace chemicals in seawater helps us understand how ocean currents move seawater around the globe, and how the ocean affects climate.|
|Biological oceanographers, marine biologists, and fisheries scientists study marine plants and animals. They are interested in how marine organisms develop, relate to one another, adapt to their environment, and interact with it. Their work includes developing ecologically sound methods of harvesting seafood and studying biological responses to pollution. New fields associated with biological oceanography include marine biotechnology (the use of natural marine resources in the development of new industrial and biomedical products) and molecular biology (the study of the structure and function of bioinformational moleculessuch as DNA, RNA, and proteinsand the regulation of cellular processes at the molecular level). Because marine biology is the most well known oceanographic field (and because the larger marine animals have such wide appeal), it is currently the most competitive sector of oceanography.|
|Marine and ocean engineers apply scientific and technical knowledge to practical uses. Their work ranges from designing sensitive instruments for measuring ocean processes to building marine structures that can withstand ocean currents, waves, tides, and severe storms. Subfields include acoustics, robotics, electrical, mechanical, civil, and chemical engineering and naval architecture. They often use highly specialized computer techniques.|
|Marine archaeologists are involved in the systematic recovery and study of material evidence, such as shipwrecks, graves, buildings, tools, and pottery remaining from past human life and culture that is now covered by the sea. Marine archaeologists use state-of-the-art technology to locate various underwater sites.|
|Marine policy experts combine their knowledge of oceanography and social sciences, law, or business to develop guidelines and policies for the wise use of the ocean and coastal resources. Marine policy requires a knowledge of at lest one of these other disciplines as well as a sound understanding of oceanographic issues.|
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Webmaster: Al Trujillo; Last updated: 08/16/2011