SYLLABUS -- ANTH 120 & 205
Beginning & Advanced Archaeological Excavation -- Professors de Barros and
Palomar College -- Fall 2008
-- Professors de Barros and
|Instructors:||Dr. Philip de Barros and Professor James Eighmey|
|Teaching Assistants:||Manny Galaviz and Tanya Duer (field); Kelsey Manning (lab)|
|Office Hrs:||MW: 9:30-11:00; TTH: 10:00-11:00 & by appointment, in BES-7|
|Class Nos:||ANTH 120: 71148; ANTH 205: 71149|
|Location:||Classroom: BE-1; Field: On Site|
|Phone & Email:||760/744-1150 x2343; email: firstname.lastname@example.org|
Suggested Internet Web Pages
|Student Success Stories||http://www.palomar.edu/archaeology/StudentSuccess.htm|
|Philip de Barros||http://daphne.palomar.edu/debarros|
|Careers in Anthropology|| http://www.aaanet.org/careers.htm
|FAQs About a Career in Archaeology (U.S.)||http://www.museum.state.il.us/ismdepts/anthro/dlcfaq.html|
|National Archaeological Database (NADB)||http://web.cast.uark.edu/other/nps/nadb/nadb.mul.html|
|CRM Firm Web Page||http://www.landmarkarchaeology.com|
|Archaeology Magazine Publications||http://www.discoveringarchaeology.com/magazine/|
|Archaeology News, Resources and Forum:||http://www.archaeologica.org/NewsPage.htm|
|1||Archaeology: Basic Field Methods. R. Michael Stewart, 2002.|
It Will Live Forever:
Traditional Yosemite Indian Acorn Preparation, 2nd Edition. Bev Ortiz, 1996.
|1||A Guide to Cultural Resource
Management . de Barros, 1993,
1996 (16 p.)
Bean and Shipek, 1978 (ca. 18 p.)
|3||Prehistory and Ethnohistory
of San Diego County, de Barros,
1998 (8 p.)
|4||Tentative Chronology of San Diego Prehistory with Artifact Types|
|5||Archaeological Site Map of CA-SDI-12510/H (forthcoming)|
|6||Additional Handouts on Special Topics|
2nd Ed, Orser and Fagan, 2004,
Historical Archaeology: Why the Past Matters, B. Little, Left Coast Press, 2007.
|2||Archaeology: Discovering Our Past, 3rd Edition. R. J. Sharer & W. Ashmore, 2003.|
|3||In the Beginning: An Introduction to Archaeology, 10th Edition. B. Fagan, 2001.|
|4||Archaeology: Theories, Methods, & Practice, 4th Ed. C. Renfrew & C. Bahn, 2004.|
|5||Federal Planning and Historic Places: The Section 106 Process. Tom King, 2000.|
ANTH 120 is beginning archaeological excavation. It focuses on:
|1||the importance of archaeological sites in relation to Native American peoples and their cultural heritage, including a visit to our site by a Luiseño elder|
|2||the importance of
archaeological research designs for dealing with both the scientific and legal
requirements of archaeology, with an introduction to Cultural Resource
|3||how project goals and
objectives, as outlined in a research design, help determine:
b) the application of associated field studies, e.g., surface collections & shovel test pits
c) the application of associated specialist studies, e.g., radiocarbon dating, obsidian hydration dating, faunal analysis
|4||how to place and excavate shovel test pits (STPs)|
|5||how to lay out and excavate excavation units (1 x 1 m and/or 1 x 2 m) in 10-cm arbitrary depth levels and/or by using natural stratigraphy|
|6||the understanding of the basics of flintknapping to produce flaked stone and core-cobble tools and associated waste flakes or debitage|
|7||how to identify
prehistoric artifacts (stone tools, pottery, flakes) and ecofacts (bones and
shell) in the field
; and, when the site permits, historic glass, ceramic and metal artifacts
how to screen excavation
dirt using both dry and wet screening
|9||how to record and bag finds
from each 10-cm level
|10||how to excavate a feature
to determine its function and horizontal and vertical extent
|11||how to collect soil column samples for macrobotanical (floral) and pollen studies, control soil samples for phytolith and protein residue studies, & charcoal for radiocarbon dating|
|12||how to excavate & map a feature, such as a hearth, including tracking fire-altered rock|
|13||how to float soil samples in the field|
|14||how to keep accurate and legible unit level records|
how to draw
unit level plan views and a final unit soil
|16||how to identify soil color
with a Munsell soil guide
|17||how to wash (& not to
wash), identify, catalog, and bag artifacts and ecofacts in the field
how to take photographs of
units, features, artifacts, and sites
how to keep a field
journal on the progress and interpretation of your excavation unit
|20||a field demonstration of
the use of a total station laser transit
an advanced course in archaeological excavation. Advanced students
will continue to learn
about field and laboratory techniques and will assist beginning students under the supervision of the TAs.
FIRST YEAR advanced students must also choose to do one of the following:
|1||Write a brief 7-10 pages excavation report according to state (ARMR)
guidelines (to be provided) based on your field journal and other observations
about the excavation of your unit and its place within the broader context of
the site being excavated OR,
|2||Help process older collections to meet CAL NAGPRA and assist in lab processing and cataloging of artifacts, including getting units in ANTH 297 OR,|
|3||Learn how to analyze sediments and soils and apply this knowledge to our sites (see Stewart's Chapter 7: Sediments, Soils, Stratigraphy, and Geomorphology) OR,|
Write a 7-10 page paper on one of the following
|faunal or floral analysis
or protein residue analysis
|radiocarbon dating or
thermoluminescence (TL) dating
|obsidian sourcing and/or
|an artifact type of your choice, such as Tizon Brownware or bedrock milling features|
|OR, on a topic of your choice.|
|5||Note-- those taking ANTH 205 for the second or third time do not have to do a project.|
It is also expected that the Advanced Students will assist the Teaching Assistants with the flotation of excavation unit soil samples when needed.
Advanced students should also carefully coordinate what they teach beginning students with Dr. de Barros and the Teaching Assistants. We should not be teaching them contradictory methods of doing procedures.
Course Reading and Quizzes
Archaeology: Basic Field Methods
Read Chs. 1-3 & 5 ASAP (some is on Quiz #1)
Read Ch 9 soon after
|Ch 1: Basic Definitions and Assumptions, pp. 1-18.|
|Ch 2: The Archaeological Record & the Recognition of Evidence, pp. 19-35.|
|Ch 3: Fieldwork: Motivations and Design, pp. 37-44 only.|
|Ch 4: Background Research, pp. 55-84 (recommended)|
|Ch 5: Preparing for the Field, pp. 85-99|
|Ch 6: Maps, Surveying, and Mapmaking, pp. 145-top 147 only.|
|Ch 7: Sediments, Soils, Stratigraphy, and Geomorphology, pp. 161-204 (recommended)|
|Ch 7: Sediments, Soils, Stratigraphy, and Geomorphology, pp. 161-166; 183-197 (top) Deals with Munsell soil color guide, stratigraphy, geomorphology, and recording the basics of a soil profile in an excavation unit.|
Ch 9: Subsurface Investigations, pp. 239-270
pp 271-318 (recommended)
|Ch 10: Training and Professional Practice, pp. 319-331|
|Appdix 1: Ethical Principles & Codes of Conduct for Archaeologists, p. 333--|
|Appendices 2, 4 and 5: (recommended)|
|Dr. D's Guide to Cultural Resource Management, pp. 1-16 & 19 for QUIZ #1|
on the Luiseño by Bean and Shipek, ca. 18 pages for
Ortiz’ book on acorn
harvesting, processing, & cooking
, It Will Live Forever forQUIZ #3
|If you have not read Stewart before, read the same portions as those in ANTH 120.|
|REVIEW Dr. D's article on Prehistory|
REVIEW Dr. D's "Guide to
Cultural Resource Management…."
(for all students):
journal should contain the following
information under the following headings on a weekly basis. Use the following two forms to facilitate
the entry of this information: Journal Form Plan View & Soil Profile Form
|1||Date and Excavation Unit No.|
|2||Unit Levels Worked|
|3||Excavation Crew Members Present|
Did the heat affect your ability to excavate or record data?
Did rain create problems for excavation?
Tools and Methods: Did you
use a shovel or a trowel? Did you
use dry or wet screening? What
other tools did you use, e.g., brush?
Major Activities of the Day:
e.g., site tour? lecture? (on what topic?), excavation? artifact
washing? unit level counts? guest speaker? unit photography? transit use? soil
profile? feature recordation? Be
sure and indicate what specific activities you did associated with your
&/or Counts of Artifacts & Ecofacts Recovered by Unit Level (don’t write in
paragraphs), such as:
the Unit Stratigraphy: Note
these characteristics about the soil:
|---What was the soil color? Did it change?
Soil Profile: If you completed a unit, please include a drawing of the
soil profile for the unit (copy the one for the unit).
Level Plan Drawing?
If features, plotted artifacts, or intruding bedrock of large plant
roots are present in your unit at the end of a level, please provide a plan
drawing (copy the one from the unit level record).
Feature? If you encountered
a feature in your unit, such as a cluster of Fire-Altered Rock or hearth, a
buried bedrock mortar, please describe the feature and provide a plan and/or
Lectures on Special Topics:
If the instructor gave a lecture on field techniques, such as site photography,
collecting soil samples, please include notes from the lecture
in your field journal.
|14||Notes on Field Trips or Guest Lecturers: Include notes from field trips and guest lecturers in your field journal.|
|15||What did you learn about your unit today? What types of activities are suggested by the artifacts and/or features in your unit?|
questions do you have about your experience?
Write down questions you have about your work or about
archaeology. Ask the instructor
or field assistant & write the responses in your field journal.
|17||Course improvement: At the end of the semester, please comment on the course: what you liked; what you think should be changed or improved. This is valuable information for the instructor and for future students in the course.|
Flotation of Soil Samples: All students will participate in the flotation of soil samples from the
Students will rotate into this position during the course of the semester.
|1||Course attendance/participation is critical.
Most students should get an A or B in the course if they come every week
and show progress in learning the fundamentals of archaeological excavation.
Progress includes active class participation, performance on 3 quizzes,
and the writing of a well-organized, clear and thoughtful field journal (ANTH
120) or project report (ANTH 205, first time).
|2||Missed classes can potentially result in a grade of C or lower.
Students who are frequently late to class will also be penalized.
|3||A serious issue that affects CLASS MORALE is the need for everyone to help bring equipment to and from the site BEFORE and AFTER class. It is NOT FAIR to other students if you shirk this work by coming late to class or trying to leave early without doing your share.|
|1||Keep a good field journal.
|2||Assist new students,
but coordinate instructions with TAs and Dr. D
|3||Assist Teaching Assistants when needed
|4||Complete your project as appropriate (first year advanced students only)|
Approximate Grading Breakdown:
|Beginning Students||Attendance/active participation||50% - 265 points|
|3 Quizzes||20% - 115 points|
|Field Journal||30% - 150 points|
|Attendance/helping beginning students||50%|
|Quizzes if applicable||15%|
|Field Journal & Project Report||35-50%|
(2nd year or more)
|Attendance/helping beginning students||50%|
|TOTAL POINTS||100% - 530|
REQUIRED* and Suggested Course Equipment:
NOTEBOOK – purchase a Engineering
and Science Notebook published by National Brand or its equivalent.
The Palomar College Bookstore also carries a "Science Notebook." It has
alternating lined and graph paper sheets that are ideal for
and excavation plan and profile
drawings. Please don't buy
special or odd-size notebooks or those without lined or graph paper.
A journal guide sheet has been provided, but you must incorporate that information into your journal. Don't turn in loose-leaf journal sheets.
|2*||4.5 to 5”
stiff TROWEL (Marshall Town
brand is preferred); check at
Home Depot or Ace Hardware (latter on Grand Ave. in San Marcos)
|3*||3 or 5 METER
TAPE (or meters & feet); avoid feet/inches only type
. Available at Ace Hardware in San Marcos
|4*||SMALL LINE LEVEL for measuring excavation depths
-- hardware store
; they are about 3" long, have a water bubble that can be centered between a pair of lines. Avoid those that have more than two lines.
|5*||WRITING TOOLS: No. 2 or 3 pencils,
separate erasers, and straight edge or ruler (transparent, light-colored plastic
|6*||CLOTHING: light colored clothing (to spot ticks), sunscreen and broad hat, stiff work shoes or boots (see Stewart, pp. 89-92+)|
|8||OTHER USEFUL BUT OPTIONAL ITEMS: folding knife (Swiss army knife), work gloves, knee pads, root clippers, compass, 10x hand lens (Stewart, pp. 85-89)|
|9||Tool bucket to carry all tools (optional)|