CUYAMACA 2004
ARCHAEOLOGICAL SURVEY AT
CUYAMACA RANCHO STATE PARK

Beginning and Advanced Archaeological Survey

Professor:  Dr. Philip de Barros -- Palomar College

The Park After the Cedar Fire

Lake Cuyamaca

Loren Libolt and Michael Hares Discussing the Day's Work

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Group Photo of ANTH 210 Students

From left to right:  Lucia D'Elia, Loren Libolt, Katie Butts, Sean Darby, Ryan Anderson, Pandora Winsby, Bridget Piculell, Deborah Jordan, Liz Winiecki, Harry Price (TA), Hugo Buriel, Jeff Sahagun, Andrea Mitchell, Jim Eighmey (adjunct professor), Michael Hares, Laura Anderson (TA), Jared Webster, Deborah Farris, Shirley Quick, Jennifer Ferreira, Nick Doose, Rebecca Thomas, and Sara Durben.  Not shown: James Enriquez, Hunter Hicks, Chad Hoogervorst, Jacob Lopez, Koji Tsunoda (TA), and Dr. de Barros (Instructor).

ANTH 220 students:  Ed Ash, Mark Boyle, Akesa Kirkpatrick, Eileen LaLone, Lucas Piek, Rudy Reyes, Carrie Simmons, and Priya Wong.

One of the more interesting classes taken by students of the Palomar Archaeology Program is ANTH 210 or archaeological surveying.  Some go on to take ANTH 220, Advanced Archaeological Surveying.  Since 1996, Palomar College has been conducting archaeological surveys for California State Parks at beautiful Cuyamaca Rancho State Park.   Courses goals included teaching students how to:

  ANTH 210
RedDiamond.gif (232 bytes) Find archaeological sites during survey
RedDiamond.gif (232 bytes) Record archaeological sites on official state record forms
RedDiamond.gif (232 bytes) Identify and record the kinds of features and artifacts on the site
RedDiamond.gif (232 bytes) Describe the local environment where the site is located
RedDiamond.gif (232 bytes) Draw archaeological sketch maps
RedDiamond.gif (232 bytes) Locate sites on the USGS Cuyamaca Peak 7.5' topographic quad
RedDiamond.gif (232 bytes) Locate sites using a GeoExplorer III GPS field unit (optional)
RedDiamond.gif (232 bytes) Re-record old sites whose location/descriptions may be incorrect
  ANTH 220
RedDiamond.gif (232 bytes) GPS: Setup GeoExplorer III field unit with a data dictionary (optional)
RedDiamond.gif (232 bytes) GPS:  Master unit menus and learn how to download data to the computer
RedDiamond.gif (232 bytes) GPS: Record point, linear, & area features: artifacts, roads, site boundaries
RedDiamond.gif (232 bytes) GPS:  Download base station data to the computer
RedDiamond.gif (232 bytes) GPS:  Learn basics of Pathfinder software, especially differential correction
RedDiamond.gif (232 bytes) GPS-GIS:  Download site locational data into ArcView 3.2 GIS/ArcGIS 8.3, soon 9
RedDiamond.gif (232 bytes) TOTAL STATION:  Map archaeological sites using a total station.
RedDiamond.gif (232 bytes) TOTAL STATION-AUTOCAD:  Download data to AutoCAD for map making.

Background on Palomar Survey Courses at Cuyamaca
by Dr. Philip de Barros, SOPA/RPA

The Palomar survey program at Cuyamaca began in 1996.  District Archaeologist Rae Schwaderer from the California State Parks Anza-Borrego Office, asked me if my students would be interested in doing survey or excavation within the park.  I had just taken over the Palomar Archaeology Program and was delighted at the invitation.  We began our survey program in the southern portion of the park in the Spring of 1996.  We re-recorded two sites originally recorded by D.L. True in 1960 and discovered three additional sites.   We also toured other prehistoric and historic sites in the park.  In 1998, we switched our attention to the northern half of the park.  We re-recorded two D.L. True sites and discovered 11 prehistoric and historic sites, including erosional control features probably done by the Civilian Conservation Corps in the 1930s. 

In the Spring of 2000, we continued our work in the northern half of the park re-recording True's sites and discovering a few new sites.  We also made our biannual pilgrimage to the ethnographic site of Pilcha.  One of the highlights of the 2000 class was a day-long visit by Carmen Lucas, lineal descendent of the Kwaaymi of Mount Laguna.  She visited sites recorded in past years, including a 60-m long rock wall feature that has no associated artifacts.  Ms. Lucas' opinion is that it may have been a defensive site as it overlooks a major portion of Green Valley from that point, but she also noted that other Indians may have a different point of view. In the Spring of 2002, most of the survey work was done in Oceanside at the Pioneer Cemetery with a bit of survey done in Green Valley.

In the Spring of 2004,  surveying was done in both the northern and southern portions of the park. We rerecorded three sites identified by D.L. True in 1960 and three sites recorded by Gerritt Fenenga in 1986.  We also found and recorded four new sites.  We are thankful to Sue Wade, District Archaeologist, for the opportunity to conduct these surveys.  Thanks also go to Palomar graduates and Park employees, Heather Thomson and Kerri Hunsinger, who assisted the students during this Spring.


Flora and Landscape Scenes from Cuyamaca

Cuyamaca Rancho State Park possesses a wide variety of flora and beautiful spring landscapes.  A few pictures have been provided below to give you an idea of why students love to spend a couple of weekends at Cuyamaca during their survey courses.



Cuyamaca Landscapes
(above and to the right)

Dr. D  on Granite Bedrock Surrounded by Yucca

Wildflowers
(above and to the right)

Cedar Fire Damage 2003

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California Plants Photo Archive


Cuyamaca and the Kumeyaay Indians

Cuyamaca Rancho State Park was once the home of the Kumeyaay Indians who lived in southern San Diego and Imperial Counties as well as northern Baja California.  The Kumeyaay lived from hunting wild game; gathering shellfish and a wide variety of plant foods for consumption, medicines, and construction materials; and from fishing. 

The Kumeyaay are part of the Hokan-speaking Yuman Indians of southern California and the Colorado River Basin.  They differ from the Shoshone or Takic-speaking peoples living between the Kumeyaay and the Chumash near Santa Barbara (also Hokan-speaking), such as the Luiseño, Cupeño, Cahuilla, Serrano, and other groups.  The Kumeyaay are also known under other names:

  • The Ipai, Tipai, and Paipai:   The Ipai lived primarily in the vicinity of Santa Ysabel and Mesa Grande Indian Reservations.  The Tipai occupied much of the rest of southern San Diego County and part of northern Baja California.  The Paipai are located further south in Baja California in the vicinity of Santa Catarina.

  • The Kamia:  This name refers to what are sometimes called the Desert Kumeyaay of southern Imperial County.   In reality, the Mountain Kumeyaay of the Laguna Mountain and Cuyamaca regions had a seasonal round that included forays into the desert to fish in prehistoric Lake Cahuilla (its modern equivalent is the Salton Sea) and to harvest mesquite beans, agave and other desert products.   Some Kamia apparently lived in the desert all year round. The Kamia or Desert Kumeyaay occupied southern Imperial County up to the Sand Hills sand dunes west of Yuma.

  • The Diegueño:  The Diegueño is a Spanish word derived from Indians associated with Mission San Diego.  It includes populations from southern San Diego County and northwestern Baja California.

  • The Kumeyaay:  Kumeyaay is the term now used by all Hokan-Yuman speaking groups in California, i.e., the Diegueño, Kamia, Tipai and Ipai, except those along the Colorado River itself.


Students At Work in the Field


Rudy Reyes, Akesa Kirkpatrick, and Priya Wong Working with the Total Station, ANTH 220


GeoExplorerII.jpg (12077 bytes)
GeoExplorer II GPS Unit


Recording Bedrock Milling Features:  Koji Tsunoda (TA) with Chad Hoogervorst, Jacob Lopez, Jennifer Ferreira, & Becky Thomas


Recording Bedrock Milling Features:  Lucia, Nick & Sara with Heather Thomson, Cal State Parks



Students Conducting Archaeological Survey



Sara Durben and Nick Doose Take Field Notes During Survey

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Aside from learning how to find archaeological sites and to record their location on a topographic map (as well as with a GPS unit), students learned how to fill out Department of Parks and Recreation (DPR) archaeological site forms, including the Primary Record and Archaeological Site Record.  The these forms provides information on site location, site type, site size, as well as features and artifacts present.  Features can include bedrock milling features, rock alignments, rock art, or historic fence lines.  Artifacts might include stone tools (such as arrowheads or manos for grinding seeds), flake waste from making stone tools, pottery sherds, or historic ceramics, metal, or glass.  The site form also provides information on the local environment, such as vegetation, soils, and nearest water sources.  This information is valuable for assessing site function and the reason for a site's location.


Archaeological Sites, Features and Artifacts
 

A number of archaeological sites were recorded during the survey.  We have provided a few photographs illustrating some artifacts and site types, such as bedrock milling stations, rock alignments, cupules, and probable historic rock features.  Site locations are not provided as such information is kept confidential to protect the integrity of the sites from potential looters.

Jeff Sahagun
 with Portable Metate
Bedrock Basin Milling Feature Outlined in Chalk

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This page was last updated on Sunday, November 20, 2005.
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